4.0 - Menus
Many of the Innova Engineering functions are accessed from the main menu; the functions common to all modules will be covered in this section. The details on other menu options will be covered in the relevant manual section.
Figure 8: Menu Bar
Figure 9: File Menu
New: Create a new blank engineering project. This can also be accessed by pressing Ctrl + N
Open: Open an existing engineering project. This can also be accessed by pressing Ctrl + O
Save: Save current project. Projects are saved as a .Ieng file. This can also be accessed by pressing Ctrl + S
Save As: Save existing project under a new name
Access the Generate Reports dialog
Figure 10: Report generator
Once results have been generated by the various program modules, reports can be printed to PDF or excel from the report generator dialog. Two company logos can be included in the reports and the logos are selected via file menu -> select logo / select logo 2. The logo must be in a .bmp format and once selected will be displayed in the logo frame on the report generator. Please note that logo 2 will not be included in any excel reports.
The reporting options common to all report types are available from the Options frame. Select the report type, either PDF of Excel, from the combo box and select whether the header footer and cover page are to be included. The company logo is displayed in three elements and if none are selected the logo will not be displayed.
In addition, the PDF report colour scheme can be selected from the drop down colour menus Back and Inset. The Back colour is the predominant colour of the headings in the report and the Inset colour will appear behind section titles for better contrast if required. This selection will not affect any excel reports generated.
Five different report types are available from the tabs in the lower half of the dialog: Hydraulics, Torque & Drag, BHA Analysis & SAG, Non-Mag Spacing and Surveys. The tab selected when the print button is pressed will be the report that is generated. Select the various report specific options by checking and unchecking the text boxes. Note that graphs are not available in the Excel reports. The charts displayed in the PDF reports will print the last setting applied to the charts in the main program. If the charts have not been viewed, default settings will be used. Once all the report options have been selected click on the Print option from the file menu and save the report as either a PDF of Excel file. Once the report has been printed the Excel or PDF viewer will be launched and the report previewed. From here the report can be sent to any currently installed printer.
The user can create Pre-Defined Reports, based on common report selections. When in a relevant report tab, the user makes the desired selection for the report output. They can then insert a Report Name and select Add. This report will now be available from the drop-down menu. It is important to note that the pre-defined report will only save the selection in 1 tab. Additional reports are required for each tab, and different selections within individual tabs. Pre-defined reports can be updated and deleted using the Update and Delete buttons.
Prints an excel report containing the BHA details as they are entered in the Drill String section of the main screen. Selecting this option Opens the Print BHA dialog, allowing the user to enter additional BHA data which is included in the report. The Fill Colour dropdown box changes the colour of table headings. The Print Inverted checkbox reverses the order that the BHA components are listed in the report. Selecting Print generates the report. Note, that these cells do not need to be populated to generate the BHA report.
Figure 11: Print BHA Dialogue
This option can only be selected if the Surveys tab has been selected from the main user interface. Once on the surveys tab, this option will become available and the surveys will be imported into the survey grid selected in the Survey Selection combo box.
Figure 12: Import Survey
Select a survey file from the dialog, and select its file type from the filter drop down menu. Supported file types are tab delimited text, comma delimited text, space delimited text, Excel 2003 files, Excel 2007 and Navigator SCC text files. The file type must be selected correctly, or the file will not open correctly. The survey file can contain column headers, but must contain the measured depths, inclinations and azimuths in separate columns.
Figure 13: Select survey file
If Raw Surveys are selected, the file must contain measured depth, HX, HY, HZ, GX, GY and GZ values in separate columns. The columns do not have to be in any order and the file can contain other data columns. Once selected the following dialog will be displayed.
Figure 14: Survey import dialog
A preview of the survey file will be displayed in the main grid with the row numbers down the left hand side of the lower grid. Select the start row and the end row of the surveys you wish to import and select which column is which from the combo boxes in the upper grid. If normal surveys are selected MD INC and AZI columns must be defined. If RAW surveys are selected MD, HX, HY, HZ, GX, GY and GZ columns must be defined. If the column is not to be imported, selected NA from the combo box.
Once happy with the selection click the import button and the surveys will be imported.
Exports the BHA which the user has populated in the Drill String section of the Drill String, Well Geometry and Fluids tab on the main user interface. This option is only available when in this tab and creates a .bha file. It is worth noting that this .bha file can also be imported into Innova’s Well Seeker Pro Drill String Editor dialog.
Imports any .bha file into the Drill String section of the Drill String, Well Geometry and Fluids tab on the main user interface. This option is only available when in this tab. Care should be taken as this option will overwrite any information populated in the Drill String section.
Exit the application. This can also be accessed by pressing Ctrl + X
Figure 15: Units Menu
The Units menu controls the units for the entire project. The selected units will have a tick next to them. By default, Innova Engineering uses API units; however, these can be changed at any point.
- Mud: Pounds per Gallon (PPG), Specific Gravity (SG), PSI per Cubic Foot (psi/ft3), Pounds per Cubic Foot (lbs/ft3), Kilograms per Cubic Meter (kg/m3) or Kilopascals per meter (kpa/m)
- Length: Feet, Us Feet or Meters - Note the length units govern the lengths of components as well as the local units for surveys and global depth units
- Flow: Gallons per min (GPM), Litres per min (LPM), Cubic meters per min (m3/m) or Standard Cubic Feet per Minute (SCFM). Note, when SCFM is selected, air drilling mode is activated.
- Pressure: Pounds per Square Inch (PSI), BAR or Kilopascals (KPa)
- Weight: Kilopounds (klbs), Metric tons or Kilo-decanewtons (kdaN)
- Torque: Kilo-foot-pounds (Kftlbs) or Kilonewtonmeters (kNm)
- Volume: Barrels (bbls) or Cubic meters (m^3)
- Diameter: Either inches (in) or Millimeters (mm), this will affect all OD’s and ID’s
- Temperature: Fahrenheit or Celsius
- Magnetics: Geolink / Tensor (mv), SSP / SUCOP (uT), nT, nT no XY inversion, EVO / Applied Physics or Vertex
- Accelerometers: G or mG. The option to Invert Z Axis can be checked or unchecked irrespective of the accelerometer unit choice
- Jet Size: 1/32nds of an inch or Millimeters (mm)
Set API Units: Automatically sets the above units to match the standard API unit scheme:
- Mud: Pounds per Gallon (PPG); Length: Feet; Flow: Gallons per min (GPM); Pressure: Pounds per Square Inch (PSI); Weight: Kilopounds (klbs); Torque: Kilo-foot-pounds (Kftlbs); Volume: Barrels (bbls); Diameter: inches (in); Temperature: Fahrenheit; Jet Size: 1/32nds of an inch.
Set SI Units: Automatically sets the above units to match the standard SI unit scheme:
- Mud: Specific Gravity (SG); Length: Meters; Flow: Litres per min (LPM); Pressure: BAR; Weight: Metric Tons; Torque: Kilonewton meters (kNm); Volume: Barrels (bbls); Diameter: inches (in); Temperature: Celsius; Jet Size: 1/32nds of an inch.
Set Canadian Units: Automatically sets the above units to match the standard Canadian unit scheme:
- Mud: Kilograms per Cubic Meter (kg/m3); Length: Meters; Flow: Litres per min (LPM); Pressure: Kilopascals (KPa); Weight: Kilo-decanewtons (kdaN); Torque: Kilo-foot-pounds (Kftlbs); Volume: Barrels (bbls); Diameter: Millimeters (mm); Temperature: Celsius; Jet Size: Millimeters (mm).
Figure 16: Options Menu
This option selects whether the OD and ID of the tool joint is included in the calculations. This option only affects torque and drag and hydraulics calculations and by default is set to Yes.
This option enables or disables drill string stabilisers or casing centralisers in hydraulics and torque and drag calculations. By default, this option is set to Yes.
Determines the survey calculation method used for the surveys entered in the Surveys tab on the main user interface. Options are Minimum Curvature, Radius of Curvature, Balanced Tangential and Tangential. By default, Minimum Curvature is selected.
Option determines if data entered in the drilling data tab is used in the hydraulics and torque and drag calculations. If yes is selected the mud weight, mud rheology, ROP and RPM are used at the depths specified in the calculations. This option is useful for comparing field data to modelled data. By default, this option is set to Yes.
Determines if the motor bend is used in the BHA Analysis calculation. By default, this is set to Yes.
Options which relate to the T&D calculations.
- Viscous Drag: Refers to the drag caused by pulling the string through the mud. This only affects the PU weights. Default is No.
- Buckling Friction: The additional friction added if the pipe is buckled and being pushed through the well. Only applies to SO weights. Default is No.
- Contact Surface Correction: Additional friction applied based on the surface area of the tubular touching the well bore i.e. casing has more friction because more surface area. Default is No.
- Calculate Casing Wear: If No is selected, there will be no output in the Casing Wear Plot. Default is Yes.
- Buckling Lines: User can select between Sliding & Rotary. This selection determines which buckling lines are displayed on the Tension On & Off Bottom Snapshot Charts. Default is Sliding.
- Buckling Model: Determines the way the Helical Buckling limit is calculated.
- Conservative (Unloading Model): Sinusoidal limit x 1.4. This is the default.
- Standard (Loading Model): Sinusoidal limit x 2.1
- Include Friction Reduction Subs: Friction reduction inputs are available in the DP & HWDP component details. This option determines whether these inputs are used in the calculation. Default is Yes.
- Include Overpull in stretch calcs: Stretch calculations will take into consideration the overpull entered in the Engineering Parameters tab. Default is No.
- Outer String Properties: Required input for Expandable Liner calculations.
Figure 17: Outer String Dialogue
Properties: This section allows the user to enter the outer string properties, which are used in the liner expansion calculation. The expanded OD and ID need to be added manually. This section models an inner string of tubing and a liner run as an outer string.
Friction Factors: The pick-up (PU) and Slack-off (SO) friction factors used in the calculation. These will override the friction factors entered in the main grid
Liner Shrinkage: The length difference expected between the expanded and un-expanded liner
Catalogue: This radio button takes the user to the Component Catalogue, where they can select the relevant component to add to the Properties section.
Calculate Shrinkage: This radio button runs the liner shrinkage calculation, and the results will be populated in the Liner Shrinkage section.
- Step Interval: Determines the interval between calculated points i.e. with a step interval of 10 outputs are generated every 10 meters or feet. This will be apparent when viewing the data tables. Default is 10 when unit length is Meters and is 30 when unit length is Feet or US Feet.
- Air Drilling: To be used when the section is air drilled. User enters the expected standpipe pressure here. This will calculate the additional string weight caused by drilling on air.
- Fluid Level: This option allows the user to select the fluid level in the wellbore. The depth entered is Measured Depth, and the program will assume no fluid from surface to this depth. Over this range, there will be no buoyancy factor considered, therefore the hookload will increase as a result.
Figure 18: Fluid Level Dialogue
Include Bow Spring Force: When bow spring centralizers are included on casing or liner runs, this option allows the user to select whether the bow spring force is included in the torque and drag calculation or not. Note that if a bow spring force has been entered, this will be included in the casing standoff calculation regardless of what is selected here.
Options which relate to the Hydraulics calculations. More specifically, the surge and swab calculations.
Figure 19: Surge and Swab Parameters
Surge and swab is calculated by breaking down the measured depth into sections of a given length (Stand Length), where 30m / 100ft is the default. The program then does a lumped surge and swab calculation over this course length, where the pipe accelerates from 0 to the desired trip speed and then decelerating back to zero.
The acceleration and deceleration phases are calculated based on the current trip speed being calculated, the higher the trip speed the larger the acceleration effect. The generated outputs in the plot and data table, are the maximum surge or minimum swab values calculated over this interval.
- Surge and Swab Parameters:
- Mud Compressibility: A compressibility factor for the mud in 1/psi. Default for most oil based fluids is 3 x 10-6
- 10m Gel Strength: 10 minute gel strength, used to calculate the additional surge pressure required to break down the gels. Default is 12.
- Stand Length: Length of the stand used in the calculations. Default is 30m / 100ft.
- SnS: Include Pipe Acceleration: This option allows the user to include or exclude pipe acceleration. When this is included, the calculation will use an acceleration and deceleration phase for each stand length. When it is not included, the trip speed will be used for the whole stand with no acceleration or deceleration phase. Default is Off.
- SnS: Include Gel Strength Pressure Loss: Include the additional pressure required to break down the gels. This is normally fairly small. Default is Off.
- SnS: Continuous Circulation: Used to model coiled tubing. Assumes circulation while tripping, this means that swab affects will be less and surge effects will be more depending on flow rate. The first flow rate in the flow grid of the Engineering Parameters tab is used to determine the annular velocity generated by the circulating fluid. Default is Off.
- SnS: Limit Acceleration Effects: This option limits the additional surge pressures due to acceleration to a maximum of 2 x the current max surge pressure. This stops very large (artificial) equivalent mud weights being generated when very shallow. Default is On
- SnS: Continuous Tripping: This option assumes continuous tripping, and as a result will only calculate one acceleration phase (on the first stand length) and one deceleration phase (on the last stand length). This option is best used to model coiled tubing. Default is Off.
- SnS: Use Bit TFA for Open Ended Calcs: This option allows the user to use the bit TFA when running open ended surge and swab calculations. This will only work for assemblies which have a bit and a TFA entered. When this selection is off, the program uses the internal diameter of the last component. Default is Off.
- Pump Pressure Safety Factor: This option allows the user to increase the SPP by a specified percentage. Pipe Pressure Loss, Annular Pressure Loss and SPP values are all adjusted to reflect the input Safety Factor.
Figure 20: Pump Pressure Safety Factor Dialogue
- MPD Data: This option allows the user to enter a back pressure for Managed Pressure Drilling.
- MPD Setup. The MPD Back Pressure is added as a fixed value to all of the SPP calculation totals and will also be reflected in the ECDs.
- EMW Calculator: The user inputs the desired EMW increase at a specific TVD and the required back pressure to be applied is calculated. The user can then enter this value in the MPD setup.
Figure 21: MPD Data Dialog
- Riser Boost Rate: The boost flow rate across the riser is entered here. This additional flow in the riser annulus affects the annular pressure loss, annular velocity, hole cleaning and ECDs in the riser only. This in change in the riser values affects the SPP, annular pressure loss, hole cleaning and ECDs for the section. This is only applicable in wells where the Well Geometry includes a ‘Riser’. If the well geometry does not include a riser, any value entered here will have no effect on the calculated outputs.
Figure 22: Riser Boost Rate Dialog
Determines the number of decimal places displayed in the Inc SAG column in the raw surveys tab.
Determines the number of decimal places displayed in the MD, Inc and Azi columns in the Actual Surveys and Well Plan tabs.
Allows the user to pre-set some of the default chart settings.
- Auto Chart Colours: User can select Yes or No. Yes sets the default line colours to the options selected in Customize Colours / Line Styles. No sets the default line colours to random.
- Auto Chart Line Styles: User can select Yes or No. Yes sets the default line styles to the options selected in Customize Colours / Line Styles. No sets the default line styles to random.
- Customize Colours / Line Styles: Allows the user to manually alter the default colour of lines based upon the chart type and the series. The user can also select a default line style for up to five variants of a series.
Figure 23: Pump Pressure Safety Factor Dialogue
The default flow rate in the Cementing tab is barrels per minute (bbls/min). This option allows the user to “Use flow units as pump rate”, which means the flow rate used in the cementing tab will match whatever the user has selected as the flow units from the units menu. This is useful when using the cementing section to simulate pumping pills etc.
This affects the drilling data tab and allows columns to be shown / hidden. If a column is visible it will have a tick next to it. By default, all columns are visible.
Allows the user to change the default raw survey QC parameters. The default values are displayed below. This can only be accessed when Raw Surveys are selected in the Survey Selection drop down menu of the Surveys tab.
Figure 24: Raw survey QC limits
Selecting this option displays a dialog which allows pore pressure, fracture gradient, casing burst and collapse pressures to be displayed.
Figure 25: Pressure Gradients Dialog
Depth Input: Determines the depth input for the Pore and Fracture Pressure.
Figure 26: Depth Input
Surveys: This selection relates to the pore and fracture pressure sections. Whatever depth (MD or TVD) is input in these sections, the other value is interpolated from the survey selection.
Figure 27: Surveys
Graph Setup: User can choose between MD & TVD for the Y-axis and Pressure & EMW for the X-axis.
Figure 28: Graph Setup
Pore Pressure: The user can enter the MD or TVD, along with the relevant Pore Pressure. This can be entered as Pressure or EMW, based on the selected input. The corresponding value will be automatically calculated based on these inputs. In the Permeable Zone column, the user can choose from a choice of yes or no. Permeable zones are used for casing design and is used to calculate the external pressure profile named permeable zones.
Figure 29: Pore Pressure
Fracture Pressure: The user can enter the MD or TVD, along with the relevant Fracture Pressure. This can be entered as Pressure or EMW, based on the selected input. The corresponding value will be automatically calculated based on these inputs.
Figure 30: Fracture Pressure
Casing Seat Calculation: This section calculates the optimum setting depths for casings based on the pore and fracture pressures. The program picks a suitable mud weight to drill with and picks the fewest mud weights to get from top to bottom.
Figure 31: Casing Seat Calculation
- Trip Margin: The input value is added to all the pore pressure values and plotted on the pressure gradients plot. This is a safety factor which takes into consideration reductions in the EMW while tripping out. When entered, the casing seat calculations will take this value into account.
- Kick Tolerance: The input value is subtracted from all the fracture pressure values and plotted on the pressure gradients plot. This is a safety factor which takes into consideration increases in the EMW while tripping in. When entered, the casing seat calculations will take this value into account.
- Analysis Type: This affects the way the program carries out the casing seat calculation. User can choose between Top Down or Bottom Up. When Top Down is selected, the calculation begins at surface and works its way down. With Bottom Up, the calculation begins at the deepest depth and works its way to surface. The results can vary slightly depending on the analysis type selected.
Casing Design: Opens the Casing Design dialog. For more information on the casing design dialogue see Section 4.5.11: Casing Design.
Well Control: This section deals with Well Control and basic well control calculations, such as maximum allowable annulus surface pressure MAASP. Calculate the required kill mud weight by entering the shut-in drill pipe pressure, and kick tolerance can be calculated in both barrels and ppg.
Figure 32: Well Control
Shoe: Depth of the Casing Shoe, entered as MD. The corresponding TVD and inclination will be populated based on the survey selected. The Pore and Fracture pressure will also be automatically populated, based on the data entered in these sections.
Open Hole: The open hole depth at which the calculation will be run. The corresponding TVD and inclination will be populated based on the survey selected. The Pore and Fracture pressure will also be automatically populated, based on the data entered in these sections.
Hydrostatic: The Hydrostatic Pressure in psi expected at the shoe and open hole depths entered.
Influx Gradient: The expected pressure gradient for the influx fluid (gas is usually expressed as 0.1 psi / ft)
Safety Margin: The safety margin in psi
Kick IF: The kick Intensity Factor. This value represents the value of the kick above the pore pressure. This is an input.
SW Density: Sea Water Density. This is used for riser less drilling calculations. The value displayed here is the one entered in the Engineering Tab on the main screen.
Ann Cap: The Annular Capacity in bbls/ft or bbls/m. This value is generated based on the hole size and the BHA OD
MAASP: Maximum Allowable Annulus Surface Pressure
MASP (Pore): Maximum allowable surface pressure based on the maximum pore pressure
MASP (Frac): Maximum allowable surface pressure which will not fracture the weak point
Kick Pressure (psi): Expected kick pressure in psi
Kick Pressure (ppg): Expected kick pressure expressed in EMW
Kick Tolerance (bbls): The volume of influx that can be tolerated in bbls. This is a calculated value.
Kick Tolerance (ppg): The volume of influx that can be tolerated in ppg. This is a calculated value
Swabbed KT: Kick tolerance for a swabbed kick (no ECD)
Operator KT: The operators kick tolerance
Pit Gain: Expected pit gain before the well is shut in
SCR: Slow circulating rate pressure
SIDP: Shut in Drill Pipe Pressure.
ICP: Initial Choke Pressure
Water Depth: If the well is offshore this is the water depth
CLF: Choke line friction pressure
SCIP: Shut in casing pressure
FCP: Final Choke Pressure.
Air Gap: Rig air gap expressed as the RKB to the top of the flow line or MSL if drilling riserless
Pump Out: Pump output expressed in bbls/stk
Kill MW: Kill Mud Weight. This is the calculated mud weight required to kill the well.
Riser Margin: The riser margin represents the increase in mud weight required to compensate for loss of hydrostatic head if the riser is disconnected.
MW: Mud weight of the mud in the current hole section
KT Sensitivity: This radio button opens the Kick Tolerance Sensitivity Analysis Plot.
Figure 33: Kick Tolerance Sensitivity Analysis Plot
Pump Output: This radio button opens the Pump Data dialogue, which is explained in more detail in the Tools section of this manual.
Pressure Gradients Chart: This chart displays a graphical output of the data entered in this section. The chart can be manipulated and exported in the same way as all the other charts in Engineering.
Figure 34: Pressure Gradients Chart
This section is for reference and the inputs do not currently have any effect on any of the calculations. Four temperature profiles are plotted on the Temperature Gradients Chart: Static, Drilling, Cementing and Production.
Figure 35: Temperature Profile Dialog
Temperature Gradients: The values input in this section directly relate to the Static Temperature. The other three temperatures are calculated based on these values.
- Surface Temperature: The temperature at surface. This will be the starting point on the X-Axis for the Static Temperature line.
- Water Depth: The depth of the water when drilling offshore. This option is activated when the offshore box is checked.
- Water Gradient: The gradient of the water temperature. This option is activated when the offshore box is checked. NOTE: this can be a negative value.
- Temp Gradient: The temperature gradient from surface / mudline.
- Multiple Gradients: When checked, the user can input as many temperature gradients as required.
- Interpolation: User can interpolate the Static, Drilling, Cementation and Production temperatures, at any given MD or TVD.
Temperature Profiles: The formulae used to create the four temperature profiles modelled in this section are detailed below.
Static Temperature Profile:
Onshore: Td -st = Ts + DGst (eqn 1)
- Td-st = static temperature of interested depth (F or C)
- Ts= surface temperature (F or C)
- D = true vertical depth of interest (ft or m)
- Gst = geothermal gradient in degree per depth unit (F/100ft or C/30m)
Offshore: Td -st = Tml + (D - Dw )Gst (eqn 2)
- Td-st = static temperature of interested depth (F or C)
- Tml = mud line temperature (F or C)
- Dw = water depth (ft or m)
- D = true vertical depth of interest (ft or m)
- Gst = geothermal gradient in degree per depth unit (F/100ft or C/30m)
Cementing Temperature Profile:
Tb-circ = (1.342 - 0.2228Gst )Tb-st + 33.54Gst -102.1 (eqn 3)
Tb-cmt = Tb circ + (Tb-st – Tb-circ) / 4 (eqn 4)
Ts-cmt = Ts + 0.3(Tb-cmt - Ts) (eqn 5)
- Tb-circ = bottom hole circulating temperature (°F)
- Ts= surface temperature (°F)
- Gst = geothermal gradient (°F/100ft)
- Tb-cmt = bottom hole as cemented temperature (°F)
- Ts-cmt = surface as cemented temperature (°F)
Drilling Temperature Profile:
Ts-d = 0.9Tb-st – ⅔DSOH(0.8Gst)/100 (eqn 6)
TDSOH -d = 0.95Tb-st (eqn 7)
Ts-d = drilling temperature at surface (°F)
TDSOH-d = drilling temperature at the depth of deepest subsequent open hole (°F)
Tb-st = bottom hole static temperature (°F)
DSOH = deepest subsequent open hole depth (ft)
Gst = geothermal gradient (°F/100ft)
Production Temperature Profile:
For production casing
Ts-p = 0.95Tb-st – ⅔Dp(0.7Gst)/100 (eqn 8)
Ts-p = 0.95Tb-st – ⅔Dp(0.5Gst)/100 (eqn 9)
Ts-p = surface production temperature (°F)
Tb-st = bottom hole static temperature (°F)
Dp = depth of production zone (ft)
Gst = geothermal gradient (°F/100ft)
Allows the user to enter a pipe size and yield limit into the grid. This can then be displayed on any of the charts via the add additional series button. This input does not affect any calculation. It is instead a reference which can be added to the required charts.
Figure 36: Pipe Yield Limits dialog
This option allows the user to add tortuosity to a plan or survey. This option will be greyed out unless the user is in the Surveys tab on the main screen. This option is only available for Actual and Well Plan surveys and cannot be used with raw surveys. In some situations, it may be necessary to add tortuosity to a well plan or survey to better simulate real life conditions. Well plans which contain purely vertical sections are a typical example of this. See Section 7.5.1: Tortuosity for more details.
Figure 37: Tools Menu
Access the quick bit hydraulics tool. This allows bit hydraulics to be calculated without having to enter all the details for a complete hydraulics calculation.
Figure 38: Bit hydraulics calculator
Enter the bit jet details into the jets grid. The left-hand column is the size of the jet and the right hand column is for the number of that particular jet size. If you do not know the exact jet details, click the fixed TFA check box and enter the TFA into the edit box.
Enter the flow rate, mud weight and the bit size in to the edit boxes in the parameters section. The units can be adjusted from the combo boxes in the units frame. This does not affect the units in the main project. The results are displayed in the results section. Note that all data entered in this calculator will be reset when the dialogue is closed.
This option is only available if the surveys tab is selected, and is only available for Actual and Well Plan surveys and cannot be used with raw surveys. It allows the user to perform both MD and TVD interpolations from which ever survey grid is currently active. This is determined by the survey selection combo on the survey tab.
Figure 39: Interpolate Dialog
Enter a depth into either the MD or TVD cell to perform the interpolation. Interpolations for multiple depths can be performed simply by typing a value in to the next available blank line. The results can be exported to a tab delimited text file by clicking on the export button. Alternatively, the contents of the grid can be copied by selecting the cells of interest and pressing Ctrl + C.
This gives the user access to the Pump Data dialog.
Figure 40: Pump Output Dialog
The pump output in barrels / stroke can be calculated by entering the pump liner size, stroke length and pump efficiency. By default, the efficiency is set to 97%. Select if the pump type being used is duplex or triplex from the pump type combo box.
Pump liner size and rating can also be input here. This can then be displayed on any of the charts via the add additional series button. This input does not affect any calculation. It is instead a reference which can be added to the required charts.
A calculator which lets the user calculate the total length of pipe by entering the nominal length of 1 joint of pipe along with the number of joints.
Figure 41: Pipe Length Calculator Dialogue
Allows the user to calculate the tubular properties of Drill Pipe, Casing and Tubing.
Figure 42: Tubular Properties Calculator Dialogue
Tubular Details: Where the user enters the details of the relevant tubular.
Tubular Type: Select Drill Pipe, Casing or Tubing from the drop-down menu.
Material Grade: Select the appropriate grade of steel from the drop-down menu
Yield Strength: The yield strength of the pipe, based on the selected Material Grade
OD: Outside Diameter of the pipe
ID: Inside Diameter of the pipe
Wall Thickness: Wall thickness of the pipe. New pipe will be 100%
Axial Tension: The Axial Tension expected on the tubular (+ve for tension and -ve for compression). This value affects the Results and Collapse Modes output.
Capacity: Internal Capacity of the pipe in barrels per foot
Closed Disp: Closed end displacement of the pipe in barrels per foot.
Open Disp: Open ended displacement of the pipe in barrels per foot. This is the Closed Displacement minus the Capacity.
Calculated Coefficients: The coefficients used for the collapse calculation (see API 5CT)
Casing Connection: This section allows the user to select the appropriate Casing connection and is only available to edit when Casing is selected from the Tubular Type drop-down in the Tubular Details section. The Material Grade can be selected on the main dialogue and the Casing Connection Selector Dialogue can be accessed from the Select Connection radio button.
Figure 43: Casing Connection Selector Dialogue
Connection types are selected from the top menu. This selection will populate the bottom table with the relevant tubular sizes, which can be selected by the user. Highlighting the relevant line and pressing select, closes the window and populates the casing connection values.
Collapse Modes: See API 5CT
Triaxial Altered Strengths Chart: This chart plots a comparison of the Triaxial Altered Loads with the API Load Window. This shows the adjusted burst and collapse pressures when tension or compression is applied.
Figure 44: Triaxial Altered Strength Chart
Displays the Component Catalogue. This can also be accessed from the toolbar on the main page and by right clicking on the drill string grid on the first tab of the main screen and selecting “Select from library” from the context menu. This enables the “Insert into Drill String” button and the details of the selected library item will be added to the selected row of the drill string grid. Custom items can be added by clicking the “add new” button and items can be removed by clicking the delete button. Note that if the program is re installed all customizations will be lost. To prevent this from happening the catalogue file should be copied (located in the install directory) and the default catalogue replaced with the customised one after the install.
Figure 45: Component Catalogue
This dialogue shows the percentage wall thickness of the different classes of Drill Pipe. The industry standard values are included. These values are editable and affect torque and drag buckling calculations.
Figure 46: Pipe Class Editor Dialogue
These inputs affect the casing standoff calculation.
Figure 47: Standoff Optimisation Dialogue
- Desired Standoff: This is the standoff which will be calculated when Optimise Standoff is selected
- Max Step Value: The minimum step value between one optimum spacing and the next. Engineering looks at the required spacing values which provide the desired standoff, and groups similar values (which land within the step range) together to provide a single optimum spacing output for each of these points. This is basically a smoothing parameter. Larger step values encompass more of the optimum spacing values providing more of a smoothing effect.
- Max Spacing: The spacing value at which no centralisers will be recommended. This affects the Centralizer Spacing Summary in the Standoff Summary Report.
This shows a graphical representation of the well geometry section on the first tab of the main screen. Depending on the size of the screen the user has, this may already be visible in a pane at the right of the screen. Due to the limited size of most laptop screens, this schematic will be hidden from view to maximise the rest of the interface.
Figure 48: Well Schematic
This opens the Multi Station Analysis (MSA) dialogue and is only available to select when raw surveys are selected in the survey tab on the main screen.
Figure 49: Multi Station Analysis Dialogue
Magnetics: Mostly populated from the values entered in the raw survey data section of the surveys tab. Only the HL Ref can be edited from this screen. This cell contains the HL value entered on the main surveys tab but, can be edited here if a more accurate value is supplied e.g. from an IFR model.
Vertical Section: Populated from the values entered in the vertical section cells of the surveys tab. These cells can’t be edited from this dialogue.
MSA Parameters: The user can select the required Bias and SF start, stop and Step values. If the LSQ fit does not show a good curve with a minimum found these values can be adjusted to extend the range of the calculation. Changing the step size can speed up / slow down the calculation but a smaller step size can increase the accuracy.
QC Parameters: Populated from the values entered in the raw survey QC limits. These cells can’t be edited from this dialogue.
MSA QC Parameters: Populated from the values entered in the raw survey QC limits. These cells can’t be edited from this dialogue.
Pseudo Bias/SF: Calculated X, Y & Z magnetometer Bias and Scale results. Only populated after Calculate MSA radio button has been clicked.
Override Correction: When this box is ticked the user can manually edit the Bias X, Y, Z and Scale X, Y, Z values.
Apply Gt Weighting: Surveys at a higher inclination are given more weighting in the calculation than surveys at lower inclinations. This is because they have more of an effect on azimuth. Ticking this box defines if the weighting is applied.
Values in Use: The user can choose which values to use for the calculation:
- Azimuth: This selection determines which azimuth is used in the survey calculation and only affects TVD, NS, EW, VS, DLS etc. Choose between MSA, SCC and RAW.
- Inclination: This selection determines which inclination is used in the survey calculation and only affects TVD, NS, EW, VS, DLS etc. Choose between RAW and SAG Corrected.
Calculate MSA: This selection runs the MSA calculation.
Select All: Selects all the survey stations in the survey grid.
Un-Select All: Un-Selects all the survey stations in the survey grid.
Survey Grid: All raw surveys entered into the surveys tab on the main screen will be entered in this grid when the dialogue is first opened. The MSA columns will then be populated once the calculate MSA radio button has been selected. As with the main survey grid, all values out of spec will be highlighted red. Additionally the Uncor Azi, Azi SCC and MSA Azi columns are highlighted blue for easy of comparison. In the event that the MSA calculation is run and an MSA Azi value is out with the QC Parameters then that surveys MSA Azi will be highlighted red. If the MZA Azi is within QC Parameters but out with MSA QC Parameters then that surveys MSA Azi will be highlighted orange.
At the left-hand side of the screen, if required the user can deselect any survey station which is out of spec. Once the relevant surveys have been deselected it is possible to rerun the calculation. The lines which have been deselected will have blank cells in the MSA columns, and this station will not be included in the calculation.
File Menu: At the top left of the MSA dialogue are the File and View toolbar menu options, which gives the user a range of additional reporting and chart options relating to the MSA calculation.
Figure 50: MSA File Menu
Print PDF Report: This generates a PDF report which includes the MSA results, Magnetics, Pseudo Bias & SF values and a listing of the corrected surveys. Note that any stations which were deselected will not appear in this listing, and that this report is NOT available from the Print Reports section. The following charts are also included in the report: BH BV Scatter Plot, B Total Comparison, MSA Azimuth Comparison, Dip Comparison, HSTF v Azimuth Correction, Corrected vs Uncorrected surveys (Plan and Section View) and GT Plot.
Print Excel Report: This generates an Excel report which includes a Survey Comparison, Uncorrected Surveys and Corrected Surveys tab. The same charts included in the PDF report are also included in the excel report.
Export: Exports the main MSA data table, as displayed on the main MSA interface. This can be exported as a .txt or Excel file.
Exit: Closes the MSA Dialogue
View Menu: The View menu contains QA/QC and other tools to evaluate the data.
Figure 51: MSA View Menu
LSQ Data: Shows the data from the Least Squares Fit charts.
Figure 52: LSQ Data Table
Azimuth Comparison Chart: Provides the user with a visual representation of the Uncorrected azimuth against the SCC corrected azimuth and the MSA azimuth.
Figure 53: Azimuth Comparison Chart
HL Comparison Chart: Gives the user a visual representation of the reference HL against the measured (uncorrected) HL and the SCC & MSA corrected HL values. The chart also includes the tolerance lines which make it very easy to quickly identify any points which are out with the QC parameters
Figure 54: HL Comparison Chart
Dip Comparison Chart: Gives the user a visual representation of the reference Dip against the measured (uncorrected) Dip and the SCC & MSA corrected Dip values. The chart also includes the tolerance lines which make it very easy to quickly identify any points which are out with the QC parameters
Figure 55: Dip Comparison Chart
BH BV Scatter Plot: Shows the horizontal and vertical components of the sensor readings plotted against the QC values. Ideally, they should all reside within the limits
Figure 56: BH BV Scatter Plot
LQS Chart: Shows the least squares fit. If a V shape curve is seen the minimum has been found and the calculation is a success. If any one of the charts does not show a “minimum found” the calculation must be re-run.
Figure 57: LQS Chart
TF vs Azimuth Correction Plot: This Chart plots the difference in the RAW and MSA corrected azimuths against the HSTF recorded when the survey was taken. This chart gives a good visual representation of the number of surveys taken in each quadrant. For best results, an even spread is ideal, but it is essential that there are at least some survey points in each quadrant.
Figure 58: TF vs Azimuth Correction Plot
Delta Azi Plot: The Delta Azi Plot shows the difference in azimuth between the MSA and RAW azimuth and the SCC and RAW azimuth.
Figure 59: Delta Azi Plot
Delta Dip Plot: The Delta Dip Plot shows the difference in the dip between the MSA and RAW dip and the SCC and RAW dip.
Figure 60: Delta Dip Plot
Delta HL Plot: The Delta HL Plot shows the difference in the HL between the MSA and RAW dip and the SCC and RAW dip.
Figure 61: Delta HL Plot
Corrected vs Uncorrected Surveys – Plan View Plot: This plot shows the difference between the corrected and uncorrected surveys in the plan view.
Figure 62: Corrected vs Uncorrected Surveys – Plan View Plot
Corrected vs Uncorrected Surveys – Section View Plot: This plot shows the difference between the corrected and uncorrected surveys in the section view.
Figure 63: Corrected vs Uncorrected Surveys – Section View Plot
GT Plot: The GT Plot shows the measured GT values against the value entered in the magnetics section.
Figure 64: GT Plot
Show Labels on Scatter: Selecting this option, displays labels on the BH BV Scatter plot.
Report Options: Allows the user to select which plots to include in the reports.
This function is not currently supported but will be in a future release.
This section allows the user to enter multiple BHAs, a Liner Tally, a Work String Tally and an Inner String Tally, and then create an output report which contains the details, including graphics.
Figure 65: Tally / BHA data Dialogue
The user can import the BHA directly from the Drill String section on the main screen by selecting the Import BHA radio button at the bottom right of the screen. The only things which need to be input manually are the Component Type, Fish Neck OD and Fish Neck Length.
This opens the Jar Placement Dialog.
Figure 66: Jar Placement Dialog
The Jar Placement dialog displays all the information and results relevant to the jar placement module.
Figure 67: Drill String Section
Non-editable display of the drill string entered in the Drill String section of the main UI. Jars are highlighted in green and accelerators in orange.
Figure 68: Jar Data Section
Non-editable display of the jar and accelerator component details entered in the Drill String section of the main UI. Only Stroke and Mandrel Area affect the jar placement results. All other cells are for reference only.
- Stroke: This is the free stroke length and is used in the impact and impulse calculations.
- Mandrel Area: Is used in the pump open force calculation.
Figure 69: Drilling Data Section
Non-editable display of drilling data used in the jar placement calculations.
- Hole Depth: Value taken from the deepest MD entered in the Well Geometry section of the main UI. Dictates the deepest depth that the neutral point calculation is run.
- Mud Weight: Value from the Fluid Properties, Mud Weight cell. Used in the buoyancy factor calculation.
- Buoyancy Factor: Calculated using the below formula.
- BF = 1 – (MW/k)
- Where BF is buoyancy factor, MW is mud weight and k is a (mud weight unit dependant) constant. Buoyancy factor is used in the neutral point and jarring results calculations.
- Flow Rate: Value from the Engineering Parameters tab. If manual flow increment is selected, the first flow rate entered will be used in the calculation. If the automatic range is selected, the flow rate entered in line 3 will be used. Used in the pump open force calculation.
- WOB: Value from Torque and Drag sections WOB Rotate cell. Used in the neutral point calculation.
- Hole Size: Value from Well Geometry, Open Hole, ID cell. Used in the Jar Size Check and Jarring Results calculations.
- Inclination at Bit: Interpolated inclination from the survey listing at the Hole Depth. Used in the Weight Below Jar BHL (Air)/(Mud) calculation.
Figure 70: Jar Checklist
Non-editable display of calculated data.
- Jar Size Check: A pass or fail check based upon the jar size and the hole size. This is to confirm that the correct OD jar has been chosen for the given hole size. Note that a Fail in this cell has NO effect on the jarring calculations, which will be run regardless. All this cell does is highlights to the user if the size of the jar selected is suitable for the hole size based on a checklist which can be fully edited by the user. This is a warning and no more.
- Jar is in: TENSION or COMPRESSION. Based upon the input data, this cell shows whether the jar is currently in tension or compression.
- Weight Below Jar Vertical (Air): The weight below the jar in a vertical well in the absence of a drilling fluid. Calculated by the sum of the component weights (input in the Drill String section of the main UI) beneath the jar.
- Weight Below Jar Vertical (Mud): The weight below the jar in a vertical well, taking in to account the buoyancy effect of the drilling fluid. Calculated by multiplying the Weight Below Jar Vertical (Air) by the buoyancy factor.
- Weight Below Jar BHL (Air): The weight below the jar at the bottom hole location (the bit depth) in the absence of a drilling fluid. Calculated by multiplying the Weight Below Jar Vertical (Air) by the cosine of the Inclination at Bit.
- Weight Below Jar BHL (Mud): The weight below the jar at the bottom hole location (the bit depth), taking in to account the buoyancy effect of the drilling fluid. Calculated by multiplying the Weight Below Jar Vertical (Mud) by the cosine of the Inclination at Bit.
- Pump Open Force: The force generated by the flow of drilling fluid through the BHA that acts to open the jar. Calculated by the bit pressure loss multiplied by the Mandrel Area.
- Neutral Point: The MD of the point in the drill string that transitions from compression to tension based upon the input data. This is directly affected by the WOB.
- Jar to Bit: The distance from the top of the jar to the face of the bit.
- Accelerator to Bit: The distance from the top of the accelerator to the face of the bit.
Pump Open Force Chart
The pump open force chart displays the pump open force versus the flow rate. The green vertical line depicts the currently selected flow rate.
Figure 71: Pump Open Force Chart
Neutral Point Road Map
The neutral point chart is a neutral point road map, which shows the WOB to avoid at every depth along the well path. The centre of the red area represents the neutral point. The red section represents a ±5% safety margin, and the orange area represents a ±10% safety margin. This gives the personnel on the job a WOB range to avoid for any given MD along the entire well path. Note that the 5% and 10% margins are the default values, but these can be changed based on user requirements via the settings menu.
Figure 72: Neutral Point Road Map
Jarring Up Chart
The jarring up chart displays the calculated jarring up impulse and impact at the jar, versus hook load.
Figure 73: Jarring Up Chart
Jarring Down Chart
The jarring down chart displays the calculated jarring down impulse and impact at the jar, versus hook load. The area shaded in red indicates the hook load range in which the string is modelled as being helically buckled. The buckling will occur at some point in the drill string above the jar and simply indicates that it may not be possible to transmit the required weight to cock / fire the jar. This range is indicated in the jarring results table by lines highlighted in Orange.
Figure 74: Jarring Down Chart
Jarring Results Table
Figure 75: Jarring Results Table
The jarring results table showing the results of the jarring calculations. These results are the source of the data that is plotted in the Jarring Up and Jarring Down charts. Note, that in the jarring down section of the results table, any lines which are highlighted in orange, indicate the hook load range in which the string is modelled as being helically buckled. The buckling will occur at some point in the drill string above the jar and simply indicates that it may not be possible to transmit the required weight to cock / fire the jar. This range is represented in the jarring down chart by the red shaded area.
- HKLD @ Fire: The surface hook load used to fire the jar This takes in to account the string weight and pick up forces which need to be overcome before the jar starts to have overpull applied. The calculation assumes CHFF 0.15 and OHFF 0.25.
- OP @ Surf: The overpull registered at surface for a given hook load.
- OP @ Jar: The overpull at the jar for a given hook load. This takes in to account the effects of drag.
- Wt @ Surf: The weight registered at surface for a given hook load.
- Wt @ Jar: The weight at the jar for a given hook load. This takes in to account the effects of drag.
- Impact @ Jar: The impact at the jar resulting from the jar firing when the associated hook load is registered at surface. Calculated utilising the length of the drill collars above the jar, the stroke length of the jar, the overpull/weight applied and the drag in the hole.
- Impulse @ Jar: The impulse at the jar resulting from the jar firing when the associated hook load is registered at surface. Calculated as the integral of impact force with respect to time.
- Impact @ SP: The impact at the stuck point (the bit) resulting from the jar firing when the associated hook load is registered at surface. Calculated utilising the length of the drill collars above the jar, the stroke length of the jar, the overpull/weight applied, the drag in the hole and the distance between the jar and the stuck point.
- Impulse @ SP: The impulse at the stuck point (the bit) resulting from the jar firing when the associated hook load is registered at surface. Calculated as the integral of impact force with respect to time.
Within the Jar Placement dialog, the user can output the following via the File Menu:
- Jar placement report
- The jarring results table data
- Any of the charts present.
The user selects File > Print Report. This generates a report which can be saved to pdf format.
Figure 76: Jarring Report
The report includes all the data and charts displayed within the Jar Placement dialog.
Print Results Grid to Text File
Exports the data in the Jarring Results table in a .txt file format.
Figure 77: Jarring Results Table
Additionally, the user can export any of the charts individually using the right click context menu and selecting Export Dialog.
The settings Menu gives the user access to the Jar Placement Settings dialog.
The Jar Placement Settings dialog is where the user can adjust the jar check size and neutral point chart safety factors.
Figure 78: Jar Placement Settings Dialog
Jar Check Size: The user can enter the jar sizes and the relevant minimum and maximum hole sizes the jars are suitable to be run in. This information will be displayed on the main Jar Placement dialog in the jar checklist section. These sizes will also be used by the program for the Jar Size Check, where the user will be informed if the jar they have entered into the drill string is suitable, based on the hole size selected.
Neutral Point Safety Factors: The safety factors entered here are represented on the neutral point chart on the main Jar Placement dialog.
- Safety factor 1 is represented by the red highlighted area
- Safety factor 2 is the orange area displayed on either side of the neutral point line.
The default values are 5% and 10% respectively but can be changed here, as per the user’s requirements.
Impulse/Impact Charts X Axis Hookload: When checked, the X axis of the Jarring Up and Down charts will represent the Hookload at surface. If unchecked, the X axis will represent the relevant Overpull (Jarring Up) and Slack Off (Jarring Down) values.
The Auto Fill Pump Out Force tool, allows the user to calculate the flow rate required in order to generate enough force to pump out a casing shoe auto fill device.
Figure 79: Auto Fill Pump Out Force Dialog
Diameter of Ball: The diameter of the ball being dropped in the string
ID of Autofill: The internal diameter of the Autofill
Number of Slots: The number of slots in the autofill
Slot Width: The width of the slots in the autofill
Flow Rate: The flow rate at which the force will be calculated
Mud Weight: Mud weight
Flow By Area No Ball: Flow by area in the autofill when there is no ball
Flow by Area: Flow by area in the autofill when the ball has been seated
Pressure Drop: The pressure drop generate by the restriction created by the ball
Force: The force created by the pressure drop
In a deviated well, when weight is slacked off (SO) at surface, depending on the well trajectory, the BHA, the mud and the friction in the hole, this weight is not always transmitted all the way down the string. This dialog allows the user to calculate the slack off weight required at surface to achieve a given slack off at a certain point in the string. The calculation will be run against the actual surveys in the surveys tab. If no surveys are entered, then the calculation will use the Well Plan.
Figure 80: Packer Setting Analysis Dialog
Packer Setting Weight: The Slack Off (SO) weight required to set the packer.
Packer Distance from Btm: The distance of the packer from the bottom of the drill string. For this calculation, Engineering uses the drill string entered in the drill string tab.
String Depth: The string depth entered in the T&D section of the Engineering Parameters tab, this is the depth at which the calculation will be run.
Results: This section will display an output for each of the friction factors entered in the Engineering Parameters Tab.
- Hookload: The hookload expected at surface when the relevant slack off weight is applied.
- SO Weight: The slack off (SO) weight actually required at surface to achieve the Packer Setting Weight entered, based on the packers position in the string, which is determined by the value entered in the Packer Distance from Btm cell.
Well Schematic: The Well Schematic is generated using the information entered in the Well Geometry and the Drill String sections of the main user interface.
The pass through dogleg dialog allows the user to calculate the maximum dogleg a certain length of tool can pass through before binding on the ID of the wellbore. It also shows the maximum length of tool which can pass through a given dogleg.
Figure 81: Pass Through Dogleg Dialog
- Tool Max OD: The maximum outside diameter of the tool being run
- Hole Size: The size of the hole the tool is being run in.
- Tool Length: The length of the tool being run.
- Actual DLS: The doglegs taken from the Actual Surveys entered in the surveys tab. If no actual surveys have been entered the program will use the doglegs from the Well Plan. Note that doglegs from the RAW survey are not displayed on this chart; if no actual surveys or well plan data is available, the actual DLS will display as zero.
- Max Tool Length: The maximum tool length which can pass through the actual dogleg at the given depth
- Critical DLS: The maximum dogleg the tool for a specified length can pass through
The Mud / Buoyancy calculation dialog allows the user to quickly calculate the buoyancy factor for single and multiple fluids along with the hydrostatic pressure.
Figure 82: Mud Calculation Dialog
Single Fluid Buoyancy Factor
User enters the mud weight and the Buoyancy Factor is automatically calculated.
Multi Fluid Buoyancy Factor
User enters the OD and ID of the string along with the External and Internal Fluid weight and the Buoyancy Factor is automatically calculated.
User enters the mud weight and the TVD and the Hydrostatic Pressure is automatically calculated.
The EDR Data File Parser allows the user to import external data into the Drilling Data tab and apply some basic data processing.
When selected, the program will ask the user to select a data file to open. Data can be imported from tab and space delimited .txt files, comma delimited .csv files, Excel spreadsheets and .las files. Once a data file is selected the EDR Data Parser window will open:
Figure 83: EDR Data Parser window
Imported data is displayed in the lower window. Processing tools for each column of data are displayed in the top window. Note that the Process Data button must be pressed before any of the data processing tools are applied.
Mapping: Use this dropdown box to assign the data in the column to the correct parameter. Mapping must be assigned to export the data to the Drilling Data tab.
Max Val: Any values in the column larger than this value will be ignored.
Min Val: Any values in the column smaller than this value will be ignored.
Rolling Average: Applies a rolling average to each data point in the column, based on previous data points. The number entered in the Rolling Average field defines how many previous data points are used in the calculation.
Reload File: Resets the data to its original state before any data processing has been applied.
Process Data: Applies Maximum Value, Minimum Value and Rolling Average settings to the data.
Export to File: Exports the processed data to an external file. Data can be saved as tab and space delimited .txt files, comma delimited .csv files, Excel spreadsheets and .las files.
Export to Params: Exports the processed data to the Drilling Data tab. Note: This action deletes all existing data in the Drilling Data tab.
# Data Points: Sets the interval of imported data points. For example: selecting an interval of 1 will import every line of data. Selecting an interval of 2 will import every other line.
Null Value: Sets the value used to signify a null value or ‘no data’ in a cell. This should match the null value used in the file being imported. By default it is -999.25.
Figure 84: Calculate Menu
This menu allows the various module calculations to be performed. Depending on the license purchased not all options may be available. Note that “Torque and Drag Snapshot” will only run the calculation for the snapshot charts. This can be used to cut down calculation time when playing about with different pipe configurations in long extended reach wells where buckling is present.
This option allows the user to check the current BHA configuration to see if there is adequate non-magnetic spacing above and below the sensor. The calculation uses the BHA entered in the drill string tab and will run against whichever survey selection (Actual Surveys, Well Plan, Raw Surveys) is being displayed in the Surveys tab at the time.
Figure 85: Wellpath Magnetics Results Dialogue
Azimuth: The azimuth displayed is referenced to Magnetic North and will therefore look different when compared to the azimuth that was entered in the plan (which could be referenced to Grid or True North). The correction applied to the input azimuth is automatic and is based on the Geomagnetic data that you have entered in the Raw Survey Data Section.
Delta Bz: The expected error between the Theoretical Bz and the Measured Bz (from MWD) for raw, uncorrected surveys.
Delta Azimuth: The expected error in the raw uncorrected azimuth reading, <0.25 degrees is considered acceptable
Delta Dip: The expected error between the calculated dip (from the geo-mag data) and the actual measured value (from MWD). This will be highlighted in red if the value is greater than the tolerance entered in the QC Limits dialog (see Options menu).
Delta HL: The expected error between the calculated magnetic field strength (from the geo-mag data) and the actual measured value (from MWD). This will be highlighted in red if the value is greater than the tolerance entered in the QC Limits dialog (see Options menu).
Theoretical Bz: The theoretical magnetic field strength expected in the Z axis with no interference.
SCC Delta Azi: The expected error in the SCC corrected azimuth, <0.5 degrees is considered acceptable. This is affected by the Latitude entered in the Raw Survey Data section.
The P1 and P2 pole strength values are automatically selected based on the component type and size above and below the non mag components in the string. These can be overridden by the user if necessary, by checking the override pole box at the bottom right of the dialog and alternative values can then be entered by the user.
The whole output can be saved to pdf by selecting File – Export to PDF.
The data table can be exported to Excel by selecting File - Export.
These results can be used to make an informed decision as to whether there is a requirement to run the SCC algorithm, add additional non-mag or do nothing. Company policy will dictate what error values are considered acceptable.
Figure 86: SAG Results
The results of the BHA Analysis and SAG calculation are displayed in this output. For details regarding how to select the parameters that the BHA Analysis and SAG calculation is run with see section 7.4 - Survey Corrections
- Deflected Shape: Shows the deflected shape of the BHA. The blue dot represents the sensor position. Note that the displayed plot always represents the final station.
- BHA Slope: Shows the slope of the BHA and relates to the correction. The blue dot represents the sensor position. The displayed plot always represents the final station.
- MD: Measured Depth of Station.
- Inc (Org): The uncorrected inclination.
- Inc (Corr): The SAG corrected inclination.
- Sag (Corr): The SAG correction to be applied to the uncorrected inclination. Inc (Org) + Sag (Corr) = Inc (Corr)
- Bit SF: Sideforce at the bit.
- BUR: Predicted Rotary Build Rate.